Just going off the pictures released so far, it looks like:
Archer = Ranger
Marauder = Warrior, or possibly Paladin
Pugalist = Monk
As for just the names of the remaining classes:
•Thaumaturge - A magic class of some sort, I'm leaning towards a white mage. According to wikipedia, it is a "miracle" or "marvel" worker, who does so through magic. That sounds very white mage-ish to me.
•Illusionist - In previous final fantasy games, the illusionist has always been somewhat black mageish, with an emphasis on AoE abilities. I think this will be our primary magic-nuke class
•Gladiator - Looks like this will be a dark-knight type class. In previous FF games, the gladiator class (also called "mystic knight") uses magic to strengthen their melee attacks.
The rest of the classes look like crafting classes, so it would be pointless to speculate on them, as there is no real precedent in previous FF games to go by.