This has worked for me as well. I teleported 2 party members to Skull Valley even though they had not been there. You need to be within a certain range of them for it to work, though it does seem like a pretty big range.
Here's what my experiences with anima prices have been so far:
Teleporting to a camp or city in your zone costs 4 anima, and to one outside of your zone costs 6. For instance teleporting from Ul'dah to Gridania costs 6, and so does teleporting from Limsa to Gridania, even though Limsa is twice as far from Gridania as Ul'dah. From a camp you can teleport to any nearby nodes you have been to for 1 anima, and from a node you can return to the nearest camp for 1 anima. Returning to the last camp or node you visited will cost 2 anima, or you can die and return for free. Teleporting to an Aetheryte doesn't count as touching it, so be sure to touch the Aetheryte if you want to be able to return there when you die.