I'm not sure if there is a list of food effects out there yet. SE did mention that certain foods will effect certain races more than others.
Here you go, this doesn't directly pertain to your question but this is from a Q&A.
"Q. What kind of effects does eating have on my character?
A. Eating food serves to temporarily increase certain stats, such as physical and magic attack power, or attributes, such as strength and dexterity. Also, there are foods and dishes suited more to the palates of certain races than others, resulting in more powerful effects."
Final Fantasy XIV
Character: Ryiah Nustar--Dunesfolk Lalafell♀