Being the bored person that I am, I've had a look inside the FFXIV folder on my hard drive.
Files that have been updated/modified are:
* ffxivconfig and ffxivgame.exe, along with game.ver in the main directory, are now version 2010.10.07.001.
* in the Game Directory\Client\Script folder, almost all of the files and folders have been updated
* in the Game Directory\Client\Sqwt folder, many of the files in the Widget folder have been updated (e.g BazaarEditWidget and others)
* in some folders, certain files have been updated, mainly relating to the UI
Overall analysis? Slight changes to the UI, some fixes on the server side, but nothing world shattering.