Trusted as a regular hand-written signature, the digital signature must be made with a private key known only to the person authorized to make the signature. Tokens that allow secure on-board generation and storage of private keys enable secure digital signatures, and can also be used for user authentication, as the private key also serves as a proof for the user’s identity.
For tokens to identify the user, all tokens must have some kind of number that is unique. Not all approaches fully qualify as digital signatures according to some national laws. Tokens with no on-board keyboard or another user interface cannot be used in some signing scenarios, such as confirming a bank transaction based on the bank account number that the funds are to be transferred to.
Mathematical-algorithm-based one-time passwords
Another type of one-time password uses a complex mathematical algorithm, such as a hash chain, to generate a series of one-time passwords from a secret shared key. Each password is unguessable, even when previous passwords are known. The open source OATH algorithm is standardized; other algorithms are covered by U.S. patents. Each new password is unique, so an unauthorized user would be unable to guess what the new password may be, based on previously used passwords.
FFXI: Dashiel. (Asura) Puppetmaster.
FFXIV: Majidah Sihaam
Marauder, Weaver & Alchemist.