You can try and check your device manager (right click on Computer, choose Manage, and click the Device Manager that appears),
At this point, choose to uninstall the driver for your controller.
Give it a minute to finish up after you confirm, then unplug your controller and plug it back in. This *should* trigger the driver detection (I would recommend using a different point, this typically causes Windows to reset the driver, rather than loading the cached driver, which may be corrupt or damaged).
If it does not automatically detect it, click the Scan button (looks like a PC with a magnifying glass), and wait for it to try and detect and install it.
If this does not happen, you may want to check other USB devices (assuming this is a USB device), as there may be a problem with either your ports or your Root Hub (physical USB Controller in your computer). If other devices don't work in those ports, than that would be your problem, and you would either need to find a working port, or get a USB PCI card.
You can also try the controller on a different computer to see if it is detected, and you view it's settings (there is a devices and Printers item in your start menu, you should see the functioning controller there).
These would be the first three things I would try (there are some variations of removing the device and drivers/ uninstalling the software, but they get redundant, and convoluted, so will just leave it at that).
Unfortunately, figuring out problems like this tend to be 90% guess work, and 10% luck. But, if you systematically remove all possible reasons for failure, you will find the cause. The information you have implies that either the controller is bad, or your USB (again an assumption) port is bad. However, sometimes it can just be a corrupted driver.